on Feng Shui
on Feng Shui

Article FS09/apr1

Prof. Dr. Ong Hean-Tatt 1st April 2009


In the controversies about changing the Bagua between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, a relevant question is, what to do about the equator? The question is incomplete, as it could have also asked, what to do about the poles? At the poles, the magnetic needle points where? In outer space the needle will point where? When you are at the North Pole and look at any horizion, the direction is always South - is it not ridiculous to try to figure out a Bagua here?

People need to systematically think it through. Here, let us restrict our discussions to identifying what should be the Bagua at the equator.

The previous article had noted that the diagram of the Early Heaven Bagua is formed by the seasonal variations of the solar shadow in the Northern Hemipshere. The Yin Yang and 8 trigrams are thus a scientific flow chart tracking the eight packages of seasonal changes of solar radiation throughout the year. As the seasonal shadow and energies will be reversed in the Southern Hemisphere, the Early Heaven Bagua diagram will be reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. The follow up article shows that schizophrenia effects are also reversed for Northern and Southern Hemisphere, confirming that the Early Heaven trigrams need to be reversed in the different hemispheres.

The follow up article also notes that the effects are not found in Singapore, which is close to the equator. Studies with other medical illnesses show that the further up the latitudes the greater the effects. Tropical trees show seasonal flowering from 3o and more latitude - they will grow but will not flower at the Southern Johore-Singapore region (about 1.5o). These evidence indicate that the reversed Baguas are applicable only within a range of latitudes at least about 2 degrees away from the equator.

The scientific evidence is that the Early Heaven Bagua of the Northern Hemisphere must be reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. But, the reversed Baguas will not apply for the equator, poles and outer space. So, Bingo, at the equator, a different diagram is in order! Like to try to find what it may look like? Here we go.


Majority of practitioners are using the wrong directions for the Southern Hemisphere.

Many Ancient Types of Baguas

Now, who gets the idea that the Bagua cannot be changed?

Many seem to have a fixation on only one form of Bagua; but these people do not realise the implications of the ancient literature and traditions. Historically, there are a number of different types of Baguas for different environmental conditions!

For the Chinese, there are already two different types of Baguas, vis the Early Heaven and the Later Heaven.

It should also be noted that the Luo Shu originally did not exist, but was created by Emperor Ta Yu, circa 2205 BC, to trace changed environmental conditions which could not be explained by the He Tu diagram. As traditions attributed the invention of the "Eight Diagrams" to Fu Hsi, circa 2950 BC, the Early Heaven Bagua likely already existed since Fu Hsi's time.

The historical testimony is that the Later Heaven Bagua came with or after the creation of the Luo Shu.

  • By implication, the Luo Shu and its Later Heaven Bagua did not exist before the era of the floods. The Later Heaven Bagua likely relates to planetary interactions between lunar and equinoctial effects on tides, rainfall and the floods.

  • Some arguing for the Northern Hemisphere Bagua as still applicable to the Southern Hemisphere had also argued that there can be only one pattern of Feng Shui forces rippling throughout the solar system. These people are talking nonsense, as the historical fact is that the Luo Shu Bagua once did not exist!

The physical environment changes and the Feng Shui diagrams likewise changed. Due to changed physical environment, the Luo Shu and its Later Heaven Bagua emerged around 2205 BC.


Using the sundial to measure the solar shadow to get the directions was the true ancient way of fixing the directions. The implications for the Southern Hemisphere have been missed out by most practitioners.

Indian Vastu Another Bagua!

Another form of altered Bagua is already seen in Indian Vastu, as in the left.

Due to the special physical features of the Indian subcontinent, the energy potentials in the Indian Bagua are different from and in some cases opposite to those of the Chinese Baguas.


Hindu Indian Vastu has a different Bagua from the Chinese types! It is time to wake up to that the typical Chinese Baguas were created for physical conditions unique to ancient China. In other regions, the patterns of the Baguas may have to change.

San He Luopan has 3 Different Baguas!

The astonishing thing is that the San He Luopan has at least 3 different types of Baguas! (section illustrated at the left).

One is the typical Early Heaven Bagua. However, Tang dynasty Yang Yun Sung created the Tian Pan, which actually is a Bagua shifted 7.5 degrees clockwise to the pattern in the Early Heaven Bagua. Then, later, Lai Bu Yi added the Ren Pan, which is a Bagua, shifted 7.5 degrees anticlockwise to the pattern in the Early Heaven Bagua.

The Tian Pan and Ren Pan are two different types of Baguas created to conform to certain different physical conditions, ill-understood by most today. There are good reasons why these two masters changed the Baguas, but the reasons will be too complicated to explain in this article.


Most do not really understand the Luopan. For example, some, like the Yang Gong people, do not understand Lai Bu Yi's Ren Pan and think he had created a useless Luopan ring. Well, these people are wrong as their knowledge is not deep enough for them to understand Lai Bu Yi's Ren Pan.

San Yuan Luopan also has a Different Bagua!

Then, the San Yuan Luopan has yet another Bagua!

The Xuan Kong Da Gua ring in the San Yuan Luopan has the trigrams shifted 22.5 degrees anticlockwise to the pattern of the Early Heaven Bagua.

Thus, even as late as the Ming dynasty, someone did produce a changed Bagua. Once more, there are good reasons why the original San Yuan master changed the Bagua, but the reasons will be too complicated to explain in this article.

So, for different environmental and astronomical conditions, the main energies of "8 Directions" are different, for which ancient masters had created different Baguas. As the conditions of the Southern Hemisphere are quite different from those of the Northern Hemisphere, the two hemispheres will have at least two different Baguas which are close to being mirror images of each other.

Practitioners have to move away from the absurd idea that there can be only one Bagua for the whole Earth and the whole universe.

I know many practitioners will feel a cold sweat shock, wondering how to rectify their mistakes. But they should bravely change and transform their Feng Shui to a truly scientific platform - I respect many of them who are actually quite knowledgeable and do not think they will become less respectable.


Practitioners ill-understand how the current Luopans originated from the ancient shih-boards, thereby misunderstanding what the Baguas are about.

The Equatorial Bagua

We need to realise that the diagram of the "8 Directions" is a dynamic flow-chart model tracking actual changing environmental conditions. It is a major mistake to take a particular model meant for China, freeze it and try to force it to apply for a whole world.

Since you are thinking, try to see the Bagua as a pie chart and see if you can scientifically reconstruct the Bagua of the equator.

At the equator, energy forces will continue to come from the "8 Directions". However, these energy forces will be different from those of the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. At the equator, the differences in sunshine and temperatures will be very small and probably non-effective.

However, due to the tilt of the Earth, there will be two monsoon periods at the equatorial belt, one at the end of the year and another in the middle of the year. You may guess that in a Bagua for the equator, the northern parts of the Bagua will relate to the end of the year monsoon winds coming from the North. But the southern parts of the Bagua will relate to the winds coming from the South in mid year. In-between, at the East and West sectors of the Bagua, there will be two lull periods, when no winds will blow - they will be still periods.

At the equatorial belt, houses should not face North or South, from where the winds will come at one time or other. Their best direction will be East to catch the morning Sun. Yang Yun Sung wrote that the South direction is best (i.e. for the Northern Hemisphere), but that, if not, the second best direction is East.

How about that for a beginning to the equatorial Bagua?!

In the end, the Bagua for a region needs to be based on its regional environmental conditions. The last chapters of the prophetic Biblical Book of Ezekiel contains reference to the Luo Shu and its Later Heaven Bagua, which therefore appear to apply to the Middle East region. It may turn out to be a modified or reversed version of the Chinese Bagua, or a different one like that of Indian Vastu. Do not stick like glue to a model and get yourself into an embarassing undefendable stance.

More research is required to resolve the issue. If you have any good suggestions or even corrections, please do tell me. The important thing is that there should be a logical and scientific rationale, not mystical conjecture which can lead to all form of nonsense.

Let us foster a scientific Feng Shui and astrology!


Knowledgeable people are entitled a bit of nonsense now and then, isn't it?

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